Suffixes / Postpositions – kint, bent, fent, lent and others

OTHER FUNDAMENTAL ADVERBS OF PLACE

Here they are: kint, bent, fent, lent and kívül, belül, alul, felül. Let’s see them in details!

HOL? – WHERE?
kint, kinn / kívül – outside
bent, benn / belül – inside
lent, lenn / alul – below, underneath
fent, fenn / felül – above, up

HOVA? – WHERE TO?
ki(felé) / kívülre – (to) outside, outwards
be(felé) / belülre – (to) inside, inwards
le(felé) / alulra – down(wards)
fel(felé) / felülre – up(wards)

HONNAN? – WHERE FROM?
kintről / kívülről – from outside
bentről / belülről – from inside
lentről / alulról – from underneath
fentről / felülről – from above

First of all, kint, bent, lent, fent have other forms meaning the same thing: kinn, benn, lenn, fenn. The rule is: you can choose whichever you want from the HOL? group. Then you see ki, be, le, fel can be stressed with –felé: kifelé…

And now another thing that might be confusing for a foreigner: English doesn’t make much of a difference between outside and outside, but Hungarian does! So what the heck is the difference between kint and kívül, for example? The answer is simple: kívül, belül, alul, felül are missing something! Literally something!

valamin, valakin kívül outside something, somebody
valamin, valakin belülwithin something, somebody
valamin, valakin alulunder something, somebody
valamin, valakin felül – above something, somebody
valamin innen – over something, somebody
valamin, valakin túl – over something, somebody
valamin, valakin át – through something, somebody
valamin, valakin keresztül – through/across something, somebody
valamin, valakin végig – along something, somebody
valaki, valami mentén – along something, somebody

Note that ‘innen’ can only be applied to something. It is not used frequently at all. An example can be a fairy-tale as follows:

…az üveghegyen innen és túl, ahol a kurta farkú malac túr, élt egy öregember.
…over the glass mountain where a pig with short tail is digging there was an old man.

Furthermore, you can see ‘végig’ and ‘mentén’ are translated with ‘along’. It is because the two are synonyms in this context.

In this context the above-mentioned indefinite pronouns (valaki, valami) take the suffixes -on, -en, -ön, -n, except the postposition mentén. That’s why you say valamin, valakin! They’re used both in general and figurative sense. Note that nouns followed by kívül, belül, etc. take those suffixes, too: a réten keresztül – across the meadow, a városon belül – inside the city…

Examples:

The English sentences might be constrained, but I want to show you what the Hungarian sentences literally are.

Kint vagyok a kertben.
I’m outside in the garden.

Hova mész? –Ki a kertbe.
Where are you going? –Out to the garden.

Kintről jövök.
I’m coming from outside.

Benn ül a házban.
He’s sitting in(side) the house.

Lent piknikeznek a völgyben.
They’re doing a picnic down there in the valley.

Fentről kiabál a hegymászó.
The mountainer shouts from above.

Lővávolságon kívül van.
It’s out of a shooting range.

A normál értékeken belül van.
It’s within normal values.

Várakozáson felül teljesít.
Literally: do sg above expectation.

Áron alul adja el a villáját.
He sells his cottage at a loss. (under price)

MORE EXAMPLES:

Watch the use of the adverbs and observe the difference compared to English!

az országon kívül
outside the country

kívül-belül
in and out

Rajtam kívül senki nincs itt.
There’s nobody here besides me.

Rómán át Párizsba repülünk.
We’re flying through Rome to Paris.

A repülő Rómán keresztül repül.
The plane will fly through Rome.

Ezen felül nincs más mondanivalóm.
I have nothing to say other than that. (above that)

A Tiszán innen gyönyörű a táj.
There’s a beautiful landscape over the Tisza.
(A Tiszán innen = after leaving the Tisza behind us)

A városon át megyek haza.
I’m going home across the city.

Menj végig a parton!
Go along the shore!

Menj a part végéig!
Go up to the end of the shore!

A folyó mentén horgászok pecáznak.
There are anglers fishing along the river.

Végig has the meaning of to the end of a place and also along a place, whereas mentén means along, next to. Besides, these adverbs can act like verbal prefixes.

túlcsordul  – to overflow
átkel – to cross (to go across)
keresztüldöf – to drive through, to pierce
végigcsinál – to do something until it’s done

Today I’ve talked about a lot of things, so I suggest reading this entry again and again. I tried to write it logically, so I just hope you will have no big problem with these adverbs of place. Bye now! 🙂

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Suffixes / Postpositions – Adverbs of Place, Other Issues

POSTPOSITIONS WITH VERBAL PREFIXES

Like verbal prefixes are added to the verbs, postpositions can be added to verbs when used as prefixes in the same way.

melléesik = to fall near sg
aláír = to sign (literally: underwrite)
körülhajóz = circumnavigate

and so on…

EMPHASIS ON THE PERSON

The person can be brought into relief in this case, too.

énelőttem, teelőtted, őelőtte, mielőttünk, tielőttetek, őelőttük
Ön előtt, Maga előtt, Önök előtt, Maguk előtt

ATTENTION! When you use the polite forms, those postpositions are written separately from the polite pronouns. Examples:

Ön(ök) előtt, Ön(ök) elé, Ön(ök) elől
Maga/Maguk alatt, Maga/Maguk alá, Maga/Maguk alól

and so on…

LET’S GO HERE AND THERE!

Now let’s talk about two adverbs of place: here/there. Again, learn them according to directions.

HOL? = itt, ott
WHERE? = here, there

HOVA? = ide, oda
WHERE TO? = over here, over there

HONNAN? = innen, onnan
WHERE FROM? = from here, from there

Examples:

Itt vagyok. – I’m here.
Ide jövök. – I’m coming here.
Innen indulok. – I’m starting from here.
Ott vannak. – They’re there. There they are!
Oda mennek. – They’re going there.
Onnan indulnak. – They’re starting from there.

And now let’s see what happens if the suffixes -ra, -re / -ról, -ről are attached to the demonstrative pronouns az, ez. Again, according to directions.

ez – erre > A bank erre van. – The bank is this way.
az – arra > A bank arra van. – The bank is that way.

ez – erre(felé) > Erre megyek. – I’m going this way.
az – arra(felé) > Arra megyek. – I’m going that way.

ez – erről > Erről jövök. – I’m coming from this way.
az – arról > Arról jövök. – I’m coming from that way.

The postposition -felé serves for intensifying the direction. The question word is Hova? whose equivalent can be Merre? and they have the same meaning. Choose whichever you want.

Hova mész? – Arrafelé.
Where are you going? –That way.

Merre mész? – Errefelé.
Where are you going? –This way.

The question word Honnan? has an equivalent, too: Merről?

SUMMARY FOR ERRE, ARRA:
Hol? / Merre? = erre, arra > position
Hova? / Merre? = erre(felé), arra(felé) > towards a direction
Honnan? / Merről? = erről, arról > from a direction

Suffixes / Postpositions With Demonstrative Pronouns (ez, az)

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS WITH POSTPOSITIONS

Obviously, these can be coupled with postpositions. But be careful! There’s a phenomenon you’ve already learned with the suffixes. Remember?

Ennek a háznak nincs teteje.
This house has no roof.

Azokat az embereket még nem láttam.
I haven’t seen those people yet.

Both the demonstrative pronoun and the object take the suffix!

ALSO

Both the demonstrative pronoun and the object take the postposition! And you also need the definite article:

e felett az épület felett = above this building

Furthermore, ”ez, az” lose their z if the postposition begins with a consonant! Example: e mögött, ez alatt, a mögött, az alatt. Of course, this rule is not valid for the plural forms of ez, az: ezek mögött, azok alatt…

ez alatt a ház alatt – under this house
az előtt a fa előtt – in front of that tree
e mellé a könyv mellé – beside that book
a fölött a polc fölött – above that shelf
A mögött a fal mögött még egy fal van. – Behind that wall there’s another wall.

But you can avoid this phenomenon with a method, namely with the adverbs of place itt, ott, ide, oda, innen, onnan:

itt a ház alatt – here under the house
ott a fa előtt – there in front of the tree
ide a könyv mellé – (to) here beside this book
ott a polc fölött – there above the shelf
ott a fal mögött – there behind the wall

More examples:

A mögött a ház mögött áll egy idős hölgy.
Ott a ház mögött áll egy idős hölgy.
There’s an old lady standing behind that house.

E körül a szökőkút körül gyerekek játszanak.
Itt a szökőkút körül gyerekek játszanak.
There are children playing around this fountain.

Az előtt a fa előtt napozik egy pár.
Ott a fa előtt napozik egy pár.
There is a couple sunbathing in front of that tree.

E mögé a fal mögé tesszük a téglákat.
Ide a fal mögé tesszük a téglákat.
We’ll put the bricks behind this wall.

Azok felé az utak felé ne menj!
Oda az utak felé ne menj!
Don’t go to(wards) those roads.

Ezek felől az emberek felől jön a zaj.
Innen az emberek felől jön a zaj.
The noise is coming from these people.

Another piece of advice. Keep practising. 🙂

Suffixes / Postpositions – More Examples For Personal Forms

More examples for personal postpositions:

NOTE! Some English sentences might sound constrained, but I want to show how to use these forms in Hungarian context.

A toll az ágy alatt van.
The pen is under the bed.
A toll az ágy alá gurult.
The pen rolled under the bed.
A tollat az ágy alól szedtem ki.
I took the pen from under the bed.

A repülő a ház felett repül.
The airplane is flying above the house.
A repülő a ház fölé repül.
The airplane is flying over the house.
A repülő a ház fölül repül el.
The airplane is flying from (above) the house.

A tolvaj a tömeg között bujkál.
The thief is hiding among the crowd.
A tolvaj a tömeg közé bújt.
The thief has hidden among the crowd.
A tolvaj a tömeg közül került elő.
The thief turned up from (among) the crowd.

A bank az iskola mellett van.
The bank is next to/beside the school.
A bank az iskola mellé épült.
The bank was built next to/beside the school.
A bankot elköltöztetik az iskola mellől.
The bank will be moved from (beside) the school.

A kert körül kerítés van.
There is a fence around the garden.
A kert köré kerítést teszek.
I’ll put a fence around the garden.

A vándor a falu felé sétál.
The wanderer is walking to(wards) the village.
A vándor a falu felől sétál.
The wanderer is walking from (the direction of) the village.

A bokor mögött lapul a sün.
The hedgehog is skulking behind the bush.
A bokor mögé mászik a sün.
The hedgehog is crawling behind the bush.
A bokor mögül jön elő a sün.
The hedgehog comes out from (behind) the bush.

NOTE! When it’s about from a direction, English often uses the from preposition. That’s why I put the adverbs in brackets.

It must be especially difficult for you to understand this direction, when something happens from a direction. You just say ’from’, and Hungarian people overcomplicate it, right? 🙂

Take my advice. In those cases you should simply use these suffixes: -tól, -től OR -ból, -ből (depending on being next to or being inside). Take a look at this:

A repülő a ház fölül repül el. =
A repülő a háztól repül el.

A tolvaj a tömeg közül került elő. =
A tolvaj a tömegből kerül elő.

A bankot elköltöztetik az iskola mellől. =
A bankot elköltöztetik az iskolától.

A vándor a falu felől sétál el. =
A vándor a falutól sétál el.

A bokor mögül jön elő a sün. =
A bokorból jön elő a sün.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Personal Forms Part 2

HOL? – WHERE?
mellettem – next to me
melletted – next to you
mellette – next to him/her/it
mellettünk – next to us
mellettetek – next to you
mellettük – next to them

Other options: beside me, beside you…

HOVA? – WHERE TO?
mellém – next to me
melléd – next to you
mellé – next to him/her/it
mellénk – next to us
mellétek – next to you
melléjük – next to them

Other options: beside me, beside you…

HONNAN? – WHERE FROM?
mellőlem – from me
mellőled – from you
mellőle – from him/her/it
mellőlünk – from us
mellőletek – from to you
mellőlük – from them

——————————————————

HOL? – WHERE?
köz(öt)tem – between me
köz(öt)ted – between you
köz(öt)te – between him/her/it
köz(öt)tünk – between us
köz(öt)tetek – between you
köz(öt)tük – between them

Other options: among us, among you…

HOVA? – WHERE TO?
közém – between me
közéd – between you
közé – between him/her/it
közénk – between us
közétek – between you
közéjük – between them

Other options: among us, among you…

HONNAN? – WHERE FROM?
közülem – from/of me
közüled – from/of you
közüle – from/of him/her/it
közülünk – from/of us
közületek – from/of you
közülük – from/of them

Other options: from among us, from among you…

——————————————————

HOL? – WHERE?
körülöttem – around me
körülötted – around you
körülötte – around him/her/it
körülöttünk – around us
körülöttetek – around you
körülöttük – around them

HOVA? – WHERE TO?
körém – around me
köréd – around you
köré – around him/her/it
körénk – around us
körétek – around you
köréjük – around them

HONNAN? – WHERE FROM?
No form exists

——————————————————

HOL? – WHERE?
No form exists

HOVA? – WHERE TO?
felém – towards me
feléd – towards you
felé – towards him/her/it
felénk – towards us
felétek – towards you
feléjük – towards them

HONNAN? – WHERE FROM?
felőlem – from me
felőled – from you
felőle – from him/her/it
felőlünk – from us
felőletek – from you
felőlük – from them

Next time I’ll write some examples and sentences so that you see these personal postpositions in different contexts.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Personal Forms Part 1

PERSONAL POSTPOSITIONS

Just like suffixes, postpositions also have their own personal forms.

NOTE! The personal adverbs of place are formed from suffixes plus a possessive ending: bennem, rajtunk…Now we’re talking about the personal forms of the postpositions we’ve discussed in the previous entry: előtt, alatt…

These forms take a possessive endings just like the personal adverbs of place.

HOL? – WHERE?
előttem – in front of me
előtted – in front of you
előtte – in front of him/her/it
előttünk – in front of us
előttetek – in front of you
előttük – in front of them

HOVA? – WHERE TO?
elém – in front of me
eléd – in front of you
elé, eléje – in front of him/her/it
elénk – in front of us
elétek – in front of you
eléjük – in front of them

Other options: to the front of me, to the front of you…

HONNAN? – WHERE FROM?
előlem – from me
előled – from you
előle – from him/her/it
előlünk – from us
előletek – from you
előlük – from them

——————————————–

HOL? – WHERE?
alattam – under me
alattad – under you
alatta – under him/her/it
alattunk – under us
alattatok – under you
alattuk – under them

HOVA? – WHERE TO?
alám – under me
alád – under you
alá, alája – under him/her/it
alánk – under us
alátok – under you
alájuk – under them

Other options: below me, below you…

HONNAN? – WHERE FROM?
alólam – from under me
alólad – from under you
alóla – from under him/her/it
alólunk – from under us
alólatok – from under you
alóluk – from under them

Other options: from below me, from below you…

——————————————–

HOL? – WHERE?
mögöttem – behind me
mögötted – behind you
mögötte – behind him/her/it
mögöttünk – behind us
mögöttetek – behind you
mögöttük – behind them

HOVA? – WHERE TO?
mögém – behind me
mögéd – behind you
mögé – behind him/her/it
mögénk – behind us
mögétek – behind you
mögéjük – behind them

HONNAN? – WHERE FROM?
mögülem – from behind me
mögüled – from behind you
mögüle – from behind him/her/it
mögülünk – from behind us
mögületek – from behind you
mögülük – from behind them

——————————————–

HOL? – WHERE?
fölöttem – above me
fölötted – above you
fölötte – above him/her/it
fölöttünk – above us
fölöttetek – above you
fölöttük – above them

HOVA? – WHERE TO?
fölém – over me
föléd – over you
fölé, föléje – over him/her/it
fölénk – over us
fölétek – over you
föléjük – over them

HONNAN? – WHERE FROM?
fölülem – from above me
fölüled – from above you
fölüle – from above him/her/it
fölülünk – from above us
fölületek – from above you
fölülük – from above them

Part 2 next time.

Suffixes / Postpositions, Introduction

OCCURRENCE IN A WIDER AREA – POSTPOSITIONS

This is the fourth group. These occurrences are expressed by means of postpositions which differ from suffixes in certain aspects:

1. The most important aspect is their meaning. A postposition by itself has its own meaning in contrast to a suffix.

2. Suffixes and endings have one syllable, while postpositions have two.

3. Suffixes and endings have two or three forms which have to comply with the vowel harmony. Postpositions have one form only.

POSTPOSITIONS FOR ADVERBS OF PLACE

Here is the list of the postpositions determining a place/direction. They have to be learned according to the three directions phenomenon, too.

On the whole, while in English one has to remember what preposition follows or precedes an adverb of place, Hungarian expresses these things in one word. Naturally, it is a must to learn the suffixes in accordance with the directions. And that goes as follows:

For the question Hova? the suffix is: -á, -é
For the question Hol? the suffix is: -tt, except körül
For the question Honnan? the suffix is: -ól, -ől, -ül

HOL? – WHERE?
előtt – in front of
mögött – behind
fölött – above
alatt – underneath, under, beneath
mellett – next to, near, beside
között – between, among
körül – around

HOVA? – WHERE TO?
elé – in/to front of
mögé – behind
fölé – over
alá – under, below, beneath
mellé – next to, near, beside, by
közé – between, among
köré – around
felé – towards

HONNAN? – WHERE FROM?
elől – from (the front of)
mögül – from behind
fölül – from above, from the top of
alól – from under, from below, from beneath
mellől – from (the vicinity of), from beside
közül – from between; of; among

felől – from (a direction)

SUMMARY:

HOL? – HOVA? – HONNAN?
előtt – elé – elől
mögött – mögé – mögül
fölött – fölé – fölül
alatt – alá – alól
mellett – mellé – mellől
között – közé – közül
körül – köré – ———-
——- – felé – felől

NOTE! The postposition felé (towards) has no version for position Hol?, just for Honnan? = felől (from). The postposition körül (around) has no version for from a direction Honnan?, just for Hova? = köré (around)

Watch them in sentences. Maybe that’s more help for you to understand their use.

Examples:

A ház előtt állok.
I’m standing in front of the house.

POSITION > Where? – in front of = Hol? – előtt

A fa mögé bújok.
I’ll hide behind the tree.

TOWARDS A DIRECTION > Where to – behind = Hova? – mögé

A madár a fészek fölé repül.
The bird flies up over the nest.

TOWARDS A DIRECTION > Where to – over = Hova? – fölé

A kocsi mellől rohan el.
He’s running away from the car.

FROM A DIRECTION > Where from? – from = Honnan? – mellől

Az emberek között érzi jól magát.
He feels good among people.

POSITION > Where? – among = Hol? – között

A föld alatt ás a vakond.
The mole is digging under the soil.

POSITION > Where? – under = Hol? – alatt

A Föld a Nap körül kering.
The Earth orbits around the sun.

POSITION > Where? – around = Hol? – körül

Vihar közeledik a város felé.
The tempest is approaching (going towards) the city.

TOWARDS A DIRECTION > Where to? – towards = Hova? – felé

So Hungarian takes directions seriously. We express exactly when being at a place, going to a place and coming from a place!

I know it seems like a big jumble now, so I would recommend learning the suffixes -á, -é / -tt / -ól, -ől, -ül. Then practise the postpositions above and try to create simple sentences for yourself. You can do that by writing a little bit far-fetched sentences in English.

A család az asztal körül ül. – The family is sitting around the table.
A család az asztal köré ül. – The family sits down around the table.

A levél a fa alatt van. – The leaf is under the tree.
A levél a fa alá esik. – The leaf falls under the tree.
A levél a fa alól elszáll. – The leaf flies away from under the tree.

I know it’s difficult because English uses quite the same adverbial prepositions for both Hol? and Hova?, but as you might have realized by now, Hungarian is an impish language.

Cheer up! And keep stuffing your head with my blog entries. 🙂 🙂 🙂

More about postpositions next time. Bye now!