Suffixes / Postpositions – Adverbs of Time, Introduction


Once learned the adverbs of place, adverbs of time are nothing to make a whole new grammar book about. It’s easy to follow this reasoning since English uses the same method to some extent. And that method goes like this:

Some words can be both prepositions and adverbs.

Examples:

Az ágy fölött polc van.
There’s a shelf above the bed.

Az ágyhoz képest a polc feljebb van.
Compared to the bed, the shelf is more above.

’Above’ in the first sentence is a preposition (postposition in Hungarian), and an adverb in the second one.

However, before losing ourselves in how to use these words, let’s begin with something that doesn’t seem to be relative to adverbs of time. That is the INSTRUMENTAL CASE expressed with the suffixes -val, -vel, whose English equivalent is the preposition: with

THE SUFFIXES -VAL, -VEL

The question words with -val, -vel are formed like this:

Mivel? – What…with?
Kivel? – Who…with?
Hánnyal? – How many…with?
Mennyivel? – How much…with?
Kiével? – Whose…with?
Melyikkel? – Which…with?

Example:

Kinek a tollával írod meg a tesztet?
Whose pen are you going to write the test?

Their use requires a little more explanation:

-If a word ends in a vowel, there is no problem whatsoever.

a kutyával > with the dog

-If a word ends in a consonant, -val, -vel assimilate with that last consonant:

a ház + -val = a házzal > with the house
a kert + -vel = a kerttel > with the garden

Ceruzával írok. – I’m writing with a pencil.
Tollal írok. – I’m writing with a pen.
A feleségével táncol. – He’s dancing with his wife.
Busszal jár. – He takes the bus. (literally: He goes with bus)

Remember! The v in -val, -vel assimilates with the last consonant!

-And the personal forms for it are:

velem – with me
veled – with you
vele – with him/her/it
velünk – with us
veletek – with you
velük – with them

-The polite forms are: önnel, magával, önökkel, magukkal. Of course, they can be intensified: énvelem, teveled, ővele, mivelünk, tiveletek, ővelük

-The polite forms cannot be intensified.

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3 comments on “Suffixes / Postpositions – Adverbs of Time, Introduction

  1. Jana says:

    29) Jobban: losing ourselves in how to use these words…

    whose elé egy vessző megy ilyen összetett mondatban, de ebben a mondatban whose (kié, kinek a) alkalmatlan. Helyesen: …expressed with the suffixes -val, -vel, which English equivalent…

    Az a harmadik példa helytelen, mivel angolul mondanak: travel / go by means of transportation, nem with. Például: go by air / rail / ship / steam / tram, és travel by land / plane… Javasolom ilyen példát: Kinek a kollégájával fogsz holnap együttműködni? – Whose colleague will you tomorrow cooperate with?

  2. Jana says:

    Ebben a szakaszban helyesen kell:
    – If a word ends with a vowel,.. és
    – If a word ends with a consonant,…

    úgyanúgy ahogy a „Suffixes / Postpositions With Demonstrative Pronouns (ez, az)“ szakaszban helyesen írta az analógiát: „…if the postposition begins with a consonant!“

  3. Jana says:

    Ez a javításom tárgytalan, mert mindkét alak (end in, end with) egyenrangú, ha szuffixumokról van szó. Értelmező szótárokban vannak feljebb említett értelmezések. De miután google-be beírtam end in és end with, azok a felhozott cikkek alapján fedeztem fel, hogy az eredeti end in alak is helyes volt. De end with is rendben van.
    Rábukkantam még egy cikkre (uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100525030307AAYTtMq) amikor kerestem valamilyen felvilágosítást arról, miért donkies helytelen alak. Ahhoz jutunk majd amikor elküldök a Nouns/Plural Form/Accusative/Dative Case kategóriához tartozó javításokat.

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